Operating System

We have completed the hardware & software topic, now let’s find out about operating systems.

Operating System

What is an Operating System?

An operating system is the most important Software in a Phone or Computer, it is the heart operating beneath all other software/programmes. An Operating System receives requests from all the programmes in your computer and relate them with the hardware of your computer.

Let’s look at some examples of operating systems: 

  • Windows, 
  • macOS, 
  • iOS, 
  • Android, and 
  • Linux 
  • Ubuntu (a Linux distribution, we’ll still discuss a lot more about this and also install Ubuntu to our computers virtually.)

These are some of the most well known Operating Systems in the world.

Unlike smartphones – where we are pretty much stuck with Android, Windows or IOS – with computers you choose which operating system you want to use on your computer.

You can decide to install Windows, Linux or macOS. There are many more operating systems to pick from than these three. However, an apple laptop or macbook uses macOS, the word Operating system can be abbreviated to OS. Hence, the name macOS and iOS.

All Windows phones use Windows as their Operating Systems.  

For example: NOKIA Lumia is one of the smartphones that uses Windows operating systems. The picture below shows a NOKIA Lumia smartphone with applications displayed on the screen.

When it comes to smartphones, iOS and Android are the biggest operating systems that have strong competition with each other. This competition is also strong when it comes to the smartphone brands Apple and Samsung. iOS is an operating system that runs all iPhones.

When you buy a smartphone, you choose which brand you prefer, by picking a brand of a phone you automatically pick an operating system as well without even noticing it. 

This is because a phone comes with its own operating system that you cannot change. An iPhone exclusively uses iOS and a Samsung phone uses Android as an operating system. Other brands of smartphones like Huawei, SONY, Hisense, and more also use the Android operating system.

What do Operating Systems do?

Let's find out more

An operating system allows applications to run within and on top of it as it contains drivers that can access the computer’s hardware such as screens, keyboards, mouse, and so on. To put it simply, it commands the computer through the hardware.

Let's watch this video

Let’s watch another quick 1:30 video and understand more basics of what operating systems do, click the link below and watch the video below.

Let's recap the video

Let’s expand the content on the video and elaborate on it. See the flowchart on the picture below that shows this process. You should not expect to see this entire process occur while using your computer or phone because it happens very quickly in split seconds.

Hover over each number to see details on what happen in each step.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Now that we learnt about operating systems, we can now discuss the operating system we will be using to build our machine to save the world with Dr. Agro Planti and his Programme Genesis. The operating system that we will be using is Linux, and we will learn about it in the following section.

Next up: deep dive into what is Linux

To book your spot – click here

We will be talking to Brent George from GetSet Games who will be sharing lessons on what it takes to build a career in the game development world.

Join Brent and TechWays for a free webinar on Thursday 3 March 5:30-6:30pm SA time. Brent has worked at 𝐖𝐚𝐫𝐧𝐞𝐫 𝐁𝐫𝐨𝐬 𝐆𝐚𝐦𝐢𝐧𝐠, 𝐢-𝐀𝐧𝐢𝐦𝐚𝐭𝐞.𝐧𝐞𝐭, 𝐔𝐛𝐢𝐬𝐨𝐟𝐭 etc. He worked on James Cameron’s 𝐀𝐕𝐀𝐓𝐀𝐑 game, 𝐁𝐚𝐭𝐦𝐚𝐧: 𝐀𝐫𝐤𝐡𝐚𝐦 𝐎𝐫𝐢𝐠𝐢𝐧𝐬 and so much more. 

We are truly excited to learn from someone who has over 30 years of game development experience – the tips and best practices to building a game development career. 

This event is suitable for learners, parents and their teachers. Book your spot HERE

type ( ) is a built-in function (still to cover what built-in functions are later) that determines the Data Type of any data presented. 

To book your spot – click here

We will be talking to Jason Suttie from Devson. Jason has been in the tech world since he was six years old. He headed IT innovation unit at RMB and has since left to start up his own software consulting company – solving problems and building solutions for clients around the world. 

Let’s hear more about the trends in the software and programming industries, where jobs are moving to and what kind of skills you’ll need in this exciting world of opportunities out there. 

Book your spot HERE

To book your spot – click here

We will be talking to Noelene Kinsley from GC Network. Noelene has been specialised in the exciting career of Genetic Counseling and wants to share her passion for making the world a healthier place using genetics….and data science technology. 

Let’s hear more about the trends in the health/genetics industries, where jobs are moving to and what kind of skills you’ll need in this exciting world of opportunities out there. 

This event is suitable for learners, parents and their teachers. Book your spot HERE

To access the recording – click here

Calling on all high schoolers interested in tech as a career to join us on 16 September at 5:30pm. If you missed it, we’ll host another one on 18 November. 

We covered the following:

  • general tech career tips
  • a few “hot button/in-demand” career pathways and jobs
  • the skills needed to access these careers
  • some of the job realities in these careers

To access the recording – click here

To book your spot – click here

 

Calling on all high schoolers interested in tech as a career. Join us on Thursday 17 March at 5:30pm.

 

We will be sharing:

  • general tech career tips
  • a few “hot button/in-demand” career pathways and jobs
  • the skills needed to access these careers
  • some of the job realities in these careers

There are only 100 spaces – so book your spot now – please RSVP here Book

To book your spot – click here

#WOW – What Outstanding Work – Awards: join us to learn from our students. 

Our top 20 learners are from St Andrews for Girls, Reddam Umhlanga, Evolve Online, Nova Pioneer and Sutherland High

Learners will be presenting their final projects. Come celebrate their successes and lessons learnt with us at our TechWays #WOW Awards.

This event is suitable for learners, parents and their teachers. Book your spot HERE

Variables

More about variables

Info about variables

Integrated Development Environment – A digital environment used to develop games, software, hardware, that offers integration from debugging to compiling. 

print ( ) is a built-in function (still to cover what built-in functions are later) that executes data inside the brackets. The results get printed out on the console/results section.

input ( ) is a built-in function (still to cover what built-in functions are later) allows a user to insert info into a program/the code. 

Mad Libs is a phrasal template word game created by Leonard Stern and Roger Price. It consists of one player prompting others for a list of words to substitute for blanks in a story before reading aloud.

Indentation – In the written form of many languages, an indentation or indent is an empty space at the beginning of a line to signal the start of a new paragraph.

str ( ) is a built-in function that converts and sequence of characters (numbers especially) in to text. 

\ – escape character is a string character that tell Python that the next character after it should be taken as a string and not as an instruction.

In programming Concatenation is a process of appending one string to another. 

String Special Characters

There a number of special string characters that have different functions when used inside ” “. Here’re some useful and common ones:

  • \n – Newline – Everything after it goes to next line.
  • \t – Horizontal tab – creates a tab space, similar to when you use ‘tab’ on keyboard.
  • \b – backspace – deletes the character before the it.
  • \r – carriage return – same as \n

String Built-in Functions/Methods

There are a lot of strings functions/methods in Python. Find full list in course manual. Here’s are some that you find useful in this course:

Functions

  • len(varName) – Returns the length of a list, string
  • “char to add”.join(varName) – Converts the elements of an iterable into a string.

Methods 

  • varName.capitalize() – Converts the first character to upper case.
  • varName.center(length) Returns a centered string
  • varName.count(“?”) Returns the number of times a specified value occurs in a string.
  • varName.endswith(“?”) – Returns true if the string ends with the specified value.
  • varName.find(“?”) – Searches the string for a specified value and returns the position of where it was found.
  • varName.format(placeholder = value) – Formats specified values in a string.
  • varName.index(“?”) – Searches the string for a specified value and returns the position of where it was found.
  • varName.isalnum() – Returns True if all characters in the string are alphanumeric.
  • varName.isalpha() – Returns True if all characters in the string are in the alphabet.
  • varName.isascii() – Returns True if all characters in the string are ascii characters.
  • varName.isdecimal() – Returns True if all characters in the string are decimals.
  • varName.isdigit() – Returns True if all characters in the string are digits.
  • varName.isidentifier() – Returns True if the string is an identifier.
  • varName.islower() – Returns True if all characters in the string are lower case.
  • varName.isupper() – Returns True if all characters in the string are upper case.
  • varName.isnumeric() – Returns True if all characters in the string are numeric.
  • varName.isprintable() – Returns True if all characters in the string are printable.
  • varName.isspace() – Returns True if all characters in the string are whitespaces.
  • varName.istitle() – Returns True if the string follows the rules of a title.
  • varName.ljust(value) – Returns a left justified version of the string.
  • varName.rjust() Returns a right justified version of the string.
  • varName.lower() – Converts a string into lower case.
  • varName.upper() – Converts a string into upper case.
  • varName.strip() – Returns a trimmed version of the string.
  • varName.lstrip() – Returns a left trim version of the string.
  • varName.rstrip() Returns a right trim version of the string.
  • varName.partition() – Returns a tuple where the string is parted into three parts.
  • varName.replace(“old”, “new”) – Returns a string where a specified value is replaced with a specified value.
  • varName.rfind() – Searches the string for a specified value and returns the last position of where it was found.
  • varName.rindex() – Searches the string for a specified value and returns the last position of where it was found.
  • varName.rpartition() – Returns a tuple where the string is parted into three parts.
  • varName.rsplit() – Splits the string at the specified separator, and returns a list.
  • varName.split() – Splits the string at the specified separator, and returns a list.
  • varName.splitlines() – Splits the string at line breaks and returns a list.
  • varName.startswith() – Returns true if the string starts with the specified value.
  • varName.swapcase() – Swaps cases, lower case becomes upper case and vice versa.

Troubleshooting is a form of problem solving, often applied to repair failed products or processes on a machine or a system. It is a logical, systematic search for the source of a problem in order to solve it, and make the product or process operational again.

Prompt – to  cause or bring about; to make something happen. For example making someone to say or write something.

Heterogeneous – diverse in character or content; containing different things

Homogeneous – of the same kind; alike throughout.

Text editor – is the part of the IDE where you write the code. Most text editors highlight words with different properties like functions to help you distinguish them from one another. 

Linux Essentials

Introduces Linux as an operating system, the basic open source concepts and an understanding of the Linux commands. Linux is crucial for cybersecurity.

Comptia
Security+

Gives you the baseline skills you need to secure a company’s systems, software and hardware. This certificate gives practical hands-on skills to pursue a career in cyber security

Certified Ethical Hacker

Will give you skills in Information Security Threats and Attack Vectors, Attack Detection, Attack Prevention, Procedures, Methodologies and more.